Some women may notice that they have genital warts, which can appear inside the vagina, in or around the anus, and on the cervix or vulva. Make an appointment with your doctor if you notice any unexplained bumps or growths in or around your genital area. Some strains of HPV can cause cervical cancer or cancers of the vagina, anus, or throat. Regular screening can help detect the changes associated with cervical cancer in women. Testing for HPV is different in men and women.
Lingering infection with high-risk HPV types, such as types 16, 18, 31, and 45, can favor the development of cancer. Furthermore, HPV can induce a tumorigenic process through integration into a host genome which is associated with alterations in DNA copy number. Normally, p53 acts to prevent cell growth, and promotes cell death in the presence of DNA damage. In short, p53 is a tumor-suppressor protein that arrests the cell cycle and prevents cell growth and survival when DNA damage occurs. Thus, inactivation of p53 by E6 can promote unregulated cell division, cell growth, and cell survival, characteristics of cancer. E6 also has a close relationship with the cellular protein E6-associated protein E6-AP , which is involved in the ubiquitin ligase pathway, a system that acts to degrade proteins.
Prevention Human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Most sexually active men and women being exposed to the virus at some point during their lifetime. The virus is common in the United States and there are approximately 14 million newly diagnosed cases of human papillomavirus HPV annually.
Print Overview HPV infection is a viral infection that commonly causes skin or mucous membrane growths warts. There are more than varieties of human papillomavirus HPV. Some types of HPV infection cause warts, and some can cause different types of cancer.